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2017-06-03 15:46:00 来源:新东方在线整理GMAT资料下载






  词汇(其中含有专业词汇跟偏义词汇)和句子(长难句居多)是构成整篇文章的基本元素,如果我们自身很多单词都不认识,那文章就读不懂,文章读不懂,没有打好基础,就更加不可能做得对题目。 GMAT考试词汇量在1万左右,如果你的单词量只有3000,那么盲目去找各种阅读方法,除非解题方法特别牛逼,不然结果肯定效果就跟拿着好枪不知道怎么瞄准。


  具体做法如下: 词汇:托福词汇(张红岩老师编著的)每天4小时积累 5-6天完成。长难句:完成词汇后,度娘搜索长难句50句,进行第一遍精翻+第二遍抓取句子主干









  Recent years have brought minority-owned businesses in the United States unprecedented opportunities—as well as new and significant risks. Civil rights activists have long argued that one of the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and other minority groups have difficulty establishing themselves in business is that they lack access to the sizable orders and subcontracts that are generated by large companies. Now Congress, in apparent agreement, has required by law that businesses awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000 do their best to find minority subcontractors and record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the government. Indeed, some federal and local agencies have gone so far as to set specific percentage goals for apportioning parts of public works contracts to minority enterprises. Corporate response appears to have been substantial. According to figures collected in 1977, the total of corporate contracts with minority businesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1.1 billion in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts with minority businesses for the early 1980’s is estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no letup anticipated in the next decade. Promising as it is for minority businesses, this increased patronage poses dangers for them, too. First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and overextending themselves financially, since most are small concerns and, unlike large businesses, they often need to make substantial investments in new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order to perform work subcontracted to them. If, thereafter, their subcontracts are for some reason reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids. Both consume valuable time and resources, and a small company’s efforts must soon result in orders, or both the morale and the financial health of the business will suffer.   A second risk is that White-owned companies may seek to cash in on the increasing apportionments through formation of joint ventures with minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many instances there are legitimate reasons for joint ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises can team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority business owners have complained to Congress about minorities being set up as “fronts (a person, group, or thing used to mask the identity or true character or activity of the actual controlling agent)” with White backing, rather than being accepted as full partners in legitimate joint ventures.   Third, a minority enterprise that secures the business of one large corporate customer often runs the danger of becoming—and remaining—dependent. Even in the best of circumstances, fierce competition from larger, more established companies makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden their customer bases: when such firms have nearly guaranteed orders from a single corporate benefactor, they may truly have to struggle against complacency arising from their current success.


  ▼P1:1.MOB opportunities and risks.

  1a.CRA:MOB lack access to orders.

  1b. congress required businesses help MOB

  1c.Some federal and local agencies apportion contracts to MOB

  ▼P2:2. Corporate response substantial.

  2a.1972:7700W上升到1977:11亿 80s:estimated 53billion

  ▼P3: P3:MOB promising and dangers,risk1:expanding and overextending too fast

  3a.expanding and overextending too fast, make substantial investments in staff… 3b. SC must soon result in orders, or morale and financial heal health will suffer.

  ▼P4: 4:risk2:WOC cash in through formation of joint ventures

  4a.WOC and MOB legitimately team up to acquire business that neither could acquire alone

  4b.But CR and MOB complained “fronts”, not full partners

  ▼P5:5.risk3:MOB became dependent

  5a.MOB difficult to broaden customer bases.have to struggle against complacency.




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