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GMAT语法解析之主谓一致

2018-12-04 17:58:28来源:网络

  新东方在线GMAT频道为大家带来GMAT语法解析之主谓一致,希望对大家GMAT备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线GMAT频道!

  1. 以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。如:His father is working on the farm. / To study English well is not easy. / What he said is very important for us all. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes.

  注意:由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。如:What I bought were three English books. / What I say and do is (are) helpful to you.

  2. 由连接词and或both …… and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。如:Lucy and Lily are twins. / She and I are classmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when they heard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.

  注意:(1)若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。如:The writer and artist has come. (2)由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。如:Every student and every teacher was in the room. / No boy and no girl likes it.

  3. 主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than, besides, including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。如:Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. / Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. / She, like you and Tom, is very tall.

  4. either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything around us is matter.

  注意:(1)在口语中当either或neither后跟有“of+复数名词(或代词)”作主语时,其谓语动词也可用复数。如:Neither of the texts is (are) interesting. (2)若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。如:None of us has (have) been to America.

  5. 在定语从句时,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。如:He is one of my friends who are working hard. / He is the only one of my friends who is working hard.

  6. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。如:Class Four is on the third floor. / Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.

  注意:people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child.

  7. 由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, the rest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lecture is wonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.

  注意:a number of“许多”,作定语修饰复数名词,谓语用复数;the number of“……的数量”,主语是number,谓语用单数。

  8. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。如:There comes the bus. / On the wall are many pictures. / Such is the result. / Such are the facts.

  二、逻辑意义一致原则

  逻辑意义一致就是谓语动词的数必须和主语的意义一致(因有时主语形式为单数,但意义为复数;有时形式为复数,但意义为单数)。

  1. what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。如:Which is your bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All have gone to Beijing.

  2. 表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体,如:Thirty minutes is enough for the work.

  3. 若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。如:“The Arabian Nights” is an interesting story-book.

  4. 表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词可用单数形式(也可用复数。如:One and a half apples is (are) left on the table.

  5. 算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词采用单数形式。如:Twelve plus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.

  6. 一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。如:The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physics isn‘t easy to study.

  7. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a (the) pair of等量词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。如:My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoes under the bed is his.

  8. “定冠词the + 形容词或分词”,表示某一类人时,动词用复数。

  三、就近一致原则

  在英语句子中,有时谓语动词的人称和数与最近的主语保持一致。

  1. 当两个主语由either …… or, neither …… nor, whether …… or ……, not only …… but also连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。如:Either the teacher or the students are our friends. / Neither they nor he is wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right?

  2. there be句型be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。如:There are two chairs and a desk in the room.

  注意:Here引导的句子用法同上。

  GMAT主谓一致真题实例讲解

  A new phenomena, which is visible at Managua’s major intersections, are waves of vendors and beggars, which include many children and mob cars at the stoplights.

  (A) A new phenomena, which is visible at Managua’s major intersections, are waves of vendors and beggars, which include many children and

  (B) Visible at Managua’s major intersections are waves of vendors and beggars with many children, new phenomena that

  (C) A new phenomenon visible at Managua’s major intersections is waves of vendors and beggars, many of them children, who

  (D) Phenomenally new waves of vendors, beggars, and many children are visible at Managua’s major intersections, which

  (E) A wave of vendors and beggars, many of whom are children, are visible at Managua’s major intersections, where they are a new phenomenon and

  题目分析:这道题目涉及的语法点很多,但破解题目的关键,就落在主谓一致上。从题目可以看到,这道题目额主语是A new phenomena,而题目给出的谓语却是are。主谓语单复数不一致,那么原句划线部分,也就是选项A,立即就可以看出是错误选项,轻松排除。

  B的划线部分和后面无法连接且语义不不通,因此也可以排除。D有同样问题,一并排除。

  C的主谓一致没有问题,暂时保留。

  D同B。

  E主语A wave,谓语动词却是are。同样存在主谓不一致的问题。排除。

  所以C就是正确答案。

  以上就为大家整理的“GMAT语法解析之主谓一致”,更多精彩内容,请关注新东方在线GMAT频道。


本文关键字: GMAT语法解析 GMAT语法

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