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2018-05-16 18:39:00 来源:网络GMAT资料下载



  “All citizens should be required to perform a specified amount of public service. Such service would benefit not only the country as a whole but

  also the individual participants.” “所有的市民都应该被要求完成一定量的公共服务。这样的服务将不但从整体上给国家带来好处,也能给个人的参与者带来好处。” 1. 比起专业的公共服务组织,所有的公民都完成一定的公共服务显得比较低效率。因为我们是在一个高度专业化分工十分明晰的社会,

  放弃专业的公共服务组织而采取强制性的公民义务形式的服务会使得效率十分低下,而且也会让大多数 人不满,毕竟每个人都有自己的职业和爱好。

  2. 管理成本的高昂也是该计划难以贯彻的一个原因。这项决定潜在上要求了要有人监督每个公民是否履行了自己的义务,也要有人给每


  3. 诚然就象作者所说的那样确实会从整体上给国家带来一定的好处,同时给每个参与的人提供和更多人交流等机会,但是在权衡利弊之

  后尤其是在和专业化组织对比之后还是得不偿失的be not worth the candle mandatory compulsory ...be weighed against ... individual compliance enforcement nullify stifle incompetence competent tantamount to 等价 insofar as...

  1. 对于国家和社会的好处:首先,强制性mandatory social work可以增加人力资源——因为social work的wage比较低,所以在非强

  制的情况下,只有少数人愿意参加,这样导致了人员的不足;广泛的参与extensive participation可以引起大家的重视——激发人们更加爱护公共设施,从而降低整个expense on the maintaining. 因为公共设施becomes a aggregation of the hard work of all the citizens. 人们不付出努力,就不会珍惜

  2. 对参与者的好处: The principal thing in this world is to keep one’s soul aloft. Flaubert(the great novelist)公共服务可以使人们更

  加意识到自己的社会责任感duty, 也同时有益于平时的工作; 可以增加人与人的交流, 在完全没有压力的环境下, 心灵得到放松.

  3. 当然, 完全强制有可能引起stimulate抵触emotion of repellence, 也要注意方法,同时不要影响正常的工作.

  View1: public service, a main approach to show social responsibilities, benefits both the county and the participants.

  View2: When becomes a burden and stress to the participants, public service harm not only individual performers but also entire society. Cost of enforcement, reduction of efficiency , increase of abhorrence.

  The potential benefits of mandatory public service must be weighed against administrative problems and concerns about

  individual liberty. On balance, the costs to a nation and to the participants would probably exceed the benefits.

  Admittedly, a colorable argument can be made for mandatory public service. It would help alleviate “free-rider” problems, where those who do not contribute benefit from the efforts of those who do. It would mitigate pressing social problems—with education, public health and safety, and the environment. It might instill in participants a sense of civic duty, community, and individual responsibility. Finally, it has worked on a smaller scale, particularly in urban areas, where renewal projects succeed in making communities safer, healthier, and more prosperous.

  Far more compelling, however, are the arguments against mandatory public service. First, who would make assignments and decide what projects are worthwhile, and how would compliance be assured? Resolving enforcement issues would require government control, in turn requiring increased taxes and/or cuts in other social programs, thereby nullifying the benefits of mandatory public service. Second, a mandatory system would open the floodgates to incompetence and inexperience. Finally, the whole notion seems tantamount to Communism insofar as each citizen must contribute, according to his or her ability, to a strong state. Modern history informs us that such systems do not work. One could argue that mandatory public service is simply a tax in the form of labor rather than dollars. However, compulsory labor smacks of involuntary servitude, whereas financial taxes do not. In conclusion, logistical and philosophical barriers to mandating public service outweigh its potential benefits for the nation as well as for participants.


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