GMAT阅读理解模拟题及答案解析(3)

2020-05-20 16:49:37来源:网络

  新东方在线GMAT频道为大家带来GMAT阅读理解模拟题及答案解析(3),希望对大家GMAT备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线GMAT频道!

  In a new book about the antiparty feeling of the early political leaders of the United States, Ralph Ketcham argues that the first six Presidents differed decisively from later Presidents because the first six held values inherited from the classical humanist tradition of eighteenth-century England. In this view, government was designed not to satisfy the private desires of the people but to make them better citizens; this tradition stressed the disinterested devotion of political leaders to the public good. Justice, wisdom, and courage were more important qualities in a leader than the ability to organize voters and win elections. Indeed, leaders were supposed to be called to office rather than to run for office. And if they took up the burdens of public office with a sense of duty, leaders also believed that such offices were naturally their due because of their social preeminence or their contributions to the country. Given this classical conception of leadership, it is not surprising that the first six Presidents condemned political parties. Parties were partial by definition, self-interested, and therefore serving something other than the transcendent public good.

  Even during the first presidency (Washington's), however, the classical conception of virtuous leadership was being undermined by commercial forces that had been gathering since at least the beginning of the eighteenth century. Commerce--its profit-making, its self-interestedness, its individualism--became the enemy of these classical ideals. Although Ketcham does not picture the struggle in quite this way, he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. For the Jacksonians, nonpartisanship lost its relevance, and under the direction of Van Buren, party gained a new legitimacy. The classical ideals of the first six Presidents became identified with a privileged aristocracy, an aristocracy that had to be overcome in order to allow competition between opposing political interests. Ketcham is so strongly committed to justifying the classical ideals, however, that he underestimates the advantages of their decline. For example, the classical conception of leadership was incompatible with our modern notion of the freedoms of speech and press, freedoms intimately associated with the legitimacy of opposing political parties.

  文章概况:文章第一段讲美国开国的六个总统和后面的总统不一样,前面的六个价值观比较传统,主要侧重于使人民成为更好的公民而并不是满足人们的私欲,后面继续详谈这些传统的价值观.结尾说就是由于这些价值观的存在,头六任总统不太喜欢political parties.

  第二段开头就把文章方向转变了,说即使是第一任总统,他的传统观念也会受到一些商业因素的影响.后面列出了一些细节来说明什么是商业因素以及这些商业因素是如何影响传统观念的

  Question #29. 148-01 (22595-!-item-!-188;#058&000148-01)

  The passage is primarily concerned with

  (A) describing and comparing two theories about the early history of the United States

  (B) describing and analyzing an argument about the early history of the United States

  (C) discussing new evidence that qualifies a theory about the early history of the United States

  (D) refuting a theory about political leadership in the United States

  resolving an ambiguity in an argument about political leadership in the United States

  问主旨,我们可以直接来看选项了

  A 描述对比两种不同理论,文章就没有围绕两种理论谈过,杀

  B 描述并分析了美国早期的一个观点,有点像佛,先留着

  C 讨论了新的证据支持早期美国的一个观点,有一个佛,先留着

  D 驳斥一个在美国政治领导的观点,即便留下了也没有B C 两个选项好,相比起来,前两个更像佛

  E 解决了一个ambiguity(不清楚的地方),文章没提过,杀

  B和C进行比较,最大的不同就是主体不一样,B是围绕观点本身谈的,C是围绕支持观点的论据来谈的,文章着重讲的是观点本身而不是证据来支持观点,B更好.

  Question #30. 148-02 (22641-!-item-!-188;#058&000148-02)

  According to the passage, the author and Ketcham agree on which of the following points?

  (A) The first six Presidents held the same ideas about political parties as did later Presidents in the United States.

  (B) Classical ideals supported the growth of commercial forces in the United States.

  (C) The first political parties in the United States were formed during Van Buren's term in office.

  (D) The first six Presidents placed great emphasis on individualism and civil rights.

  Widespread acceptance of political parties occurred during Andrew Jackson's presidency.

  我们根据题干来找找K这个家伙在什么地方,应该是在文章的第二段 Although Ketcham does not picture the struggle in quite this way, he does rightly see Jackson's tenure (the seventh presidency) as the culmination of the acceptance of party, commerce, and individualism. For the Jacksonians, nonpartisanship lost its relevance, and under the direction of Van Buren, party gained a new legitimacy. 而在第一句话中陈述出K的观点的显然是这句话的后边部分(问题理解的越精确对原文的依赖程度就越小),我们来看看后半句说的是什么.说K这个家伙认为 Jackson's tenure是开发party,商业和个人主义的.(不太理解,记住就好,理解只是为了安抚你那颗心,记住即可做题),第二句说的是非政党失去了polularity,政党获得了合法地位我们来看看选项

  A 头六任和后面的总统观点相同,没提,杀

  B 没提,杀

  C政治party形成的时间,没提,杀

  D头六任把重点放在个人注意上,好歹提过ndividualism,先留着

  E 广泛接受政治party,有点也留着

  D和E几乎是风马牛不相及的两个选项,那就看看整体意思原文强调的是哪个了,D说的是总统关注个人主义,文章说的是一个客观现象,这个选项明显就是用自己的标准来衡量原文的一个主观答案,而E几乎就是原文意思的忠实体现,选E

  Question #31. 148-03 (22687-!-item-!-188;#058&000148-03)

  It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree that modern views of the freedoms of speech and press are

  (A) values closely associated with the beliefs of the aristocracy of the early United States

  (B) political rights less compatible with democracy and individualism than with classical ideals

  (C) political rights uninfluenced by the formation of opposing political parties

  (D) values not inherent in the classical humanist tradition of eighteenth-century England

  (E) values whose interpretation would have been agreed on by all United States Presidents

  很简单,根据题干我们找找sppech和press,显然是最后一句,但是我文的是作者的观点,最后一句是个例子,往前读,大概说的是k这个家伙特别支持传统的观点,但是传统观点消失也有一定的好处

  A 价值观伴随着一个信仰,没提,杀

  B 政治权力和个人主义等不兼容,没提,杀

  C 政治权利不受反对派形成的影响,没提,杀

  D 价值观不存在与传统价值观里,和传统价值观下降方向一样,留着

  E 所有美国总统都同意价值观,没说,杀

  by the way,有人会问我就只读了文章最后那个例子,也能做对,用不着还往前读那么费尽,是因为文章最后那个例子就是把倒数第二句的内容具体化,你读这个例子应该也可以做题,但下篇文章呢?例子可能和观点不会挨的这么近,happy accidence就不会出现了!

  Question #32. 148-04 (22733-!-item-!-188;#058&000148-04)

  Which of the following, if true, provides the LEAST support for the author's argument about commerce and political parties during Jackson's presidency?

  (A) Many supporters of Jackson resisted the commercialization that could result from participation in a national economy.

  (B) Protest against the corrupt and partisan nature of political parties in the United States subsided during Jackson's presidency.

  (C) During Jackson's presidency the use of money became more common than bartering of goods and services.

  (D) More northerners than southerners supported Jackson because southerners were opposed to the development of a commercial economy.

  Andrew Jackson did not feel as strongly committed to the classical ideals of leadership as George Washington had felt.

  问哪个选项最不能支持jackson当总统时作者对于政党的态度,jackson是在第二段出现,说的就是这些早期总统还是受到了一些商业因素的影响,你再看A,说抵制了商业化,都反了,当然是least support了,这道题没有什么技术含量!


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