GMAT阅读理解模拟题及答案解析(5)

2020-05-20 16:51:07来源:网络

  新东方在线GMAT频道为大家带来GMAT阅读理解模拟题及答案解析(5),希望对大家GMAT备考有所帮助。更多精彩尽请关注新东方在线GMAT频道!

  The United States government has a long-standing policy of using federal funds to keep small business viable. The Small Business Act of 1953 authorized the Small Business Administration (SBA) to enter into contracts with government agencies having procurement powers and to arrange for fulfillment of these contracts by awarding subcontracts to small businesses. In the mid-1960's, during the war on poverty years, Congress hoped to encourage minority entrepreneurs by directing such funding to minority businesses. At first this funding was directed toward minority entrepreneurs with very low incomes. A 1967 amendment to the Economic Opportunity Act directed the SBA to pay special attention to minority-owned businesses located in urban or rural areas characterized by high proportions of unemployed or low-income individuals. Since then, the answer given to the fundamental question of who the recipients should be--the most economically disadvantaged or those with the best prospects for business success--has changed, and the social goals of the programs have shifted, resulting in policy changes.

  The first shift occurred during the early 1970's. While the goal of assisting the economically disadvantaged entrepreneur remained, a new goal emerged: to remedy the effects of past discrimination. In fact, in 1970 the SBA explicitly stated that their main goal was to increase the number of minority-owned businesses. At the time, minorities constituted seventeen percent of the nation's population, but only four percent of the nation's self-employed. This ownership gap was held to be the result of past discrimination. Increasing the number of minority-owned firms was seen as a way to remedy this problem. In that context, providing funding to minority entrepreneurs in middle- and high-income brackets seemed justified.

  In the late 1970's, the goals of minority-business funding programs shifted again. At the Minority Business Development Agency, for example, the goal of increasing numbers of minority-owned firms was supplanted by the goal of creating and assisting more minority-owned substantive firms with future growth potential. Assisting manufacturers or wholesalers became far more important than assisting small service businesses. Minority-business funding programs were now justified as instruments for economic development, particularly for creating jobs in minority communities of high unemployment.

  文章概况:美国政府制定了一个资金帮助小企业的政策,并且在刚开始就资助那些比较穷的小企业家,第二段说目标发生了一些变化,虽然政府一如既往地支持穷的小企业,但出现了一个新的目标:消除过去歧视带来的影响,后面给了一些细节。第三段说过了一段时间目标又变了,目标调整成资助那些有潜力的小企业。

  Question #21. 146-01 (22211-!-item-!-188;#058&000146-01)

  The primary purpose of the passage is to

  (A) discuss historical changes in a government policy

  (B) describe the role of Congress in regulating the work of the SBA

  (C) contrast types of funding sources used by minority businesses

  (D) correct a misconception about minority entrepreneurship

  (E) advocate an alternative approach to funding minority entrepreneurs

  问主旨,我们直接看选项

  A 政策变化,和我读的有点关系,先留着

  B 描述议会在管理SBA上的作用,没提,杀

  C 对比资金来源的类型,没提,杀

  D 纠正了一个对于小企业的误解,没提,杀

  E 主张另外一个资助小企业的方法,文章只列出了变化,没有说支持哪种变化,明显是主观答案,杀

  Question #22. 146-05 (22257-!-item-!-188;#058&000146-05)

  It can be inferred that the "ownership gap" (see highlighted text) would be narrowed if which of the following were to occur?

  (A) Minority entrepreneurs received a percentage of government contracts equal to that received by nonminority entrepreneurs.

  (B) Middle- and high-income minority entrepreneurs gave more assistance to their low-income counterparts in the business community.

  (C) Minority entrepreneurs hired a percentage of minority employees equal to the percentage of minority residents in their own communities.

  (D) The percentage of self-employed minority persons rose to more than ten percent of all self-employed persons.

  (E) Seventeen percent of all persons employed in small businesses were self-employed.

  问的是那个gap在什么条件下会变小,我们回原文先看看这个词汇所在这句话,说这种歧视导致了gap,这句话偏虚,我们读原文的目的是排除选项,读的越虚排除选项的可能性就越小,得找到这个虚的对应的实的在哪。这句话开头说这个歧视,把歧视说清楚的内容应该是上面那句,我们读,说minority占人口的百分之七而只有百分之四是self employed的,我们来看选项

  A 两种人谁收到的合同多,没提,杀

  B 中产和高收入者资助低收入的对手,杀

  C 雇用员工数量多少,没提,杀

  D 好歹说了 self-employed,先留着

  E 也说了,留着,可这个和原文不对应,稍微读懂点原文就知道说的是其中的百分之四,显然这个选项不行

  Question #23. 146-06 (22303-!-item-!-188;#058&000146-06)

  According to the passage, in 1970 funding to minority entrepreneurs focused primarily on which of the following?

  (A) Alleviating chronic unemployment in urban areas

  (B) Narrowing the ownership gap

  (C) Assisting minority-owned businesses with growth potential

  (D) Awarding subcontracts to businesses that encouraged community development

  (E) Targeting the most economically disadvantaged minority-owned businesses

  问1970资助企业的目的是什么?文章第二段说的很清楚,资助的目的就是为了消除歧视的影响,歧视的影响是什么(影响太虚,必须知道影响对应的实的是什么),显然是ownership,理解到这选哪个?显然是B

  Question #24. 146-09 (22349-!-item-!-188;#058&000146-09)

  Which of the following best describes the function of the second paragraph in the passage as a whole?

  (A) It narrows the scope of the topic introduced in the first paragraph.

  (B) It presents an example of the type of change discussed in the first paragraph.

  (C) It cites the most striking instance of historical change in a particular government policy.

  (D) It explains the rationale for the creation of the government agency whose operations are discussed in the first paragraph.

  (E) It presents the results of policies adopted by the federal government.

  问第二段的功能是什么?第二段开头就已经说了第一段那个政策变了,我们来看看选项

  A 把第一段内容范围变窄,文章在第二段方向变了不是narrow,方向不对劲,杀

  B说了一个变化,有点关系,留着

  C 也说了一个变化,留着

  D解释第一段的东西,方向不对劲,杀

  E 提出一个政策的结果,方向还是一致的,文章第二段方向变了,杀

  B和C哪个像佛,显然是B


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