2020-05-20 16:53:47来源:网络


  Some historians contend that conditions in the United States during the Second World War gave rise to a dynamic wartime alliance between trade unions and the African American community, an alliance that advanced the cause of civil rights. They conclude that the postwar demise of this vital alliance constituted a lost opportunity for the civil rights movement that followed the war. Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. Clearly, these two perspectives are not easily reconcilable, but the historical reality is not reducible to one or the other.

  Unions faced a choice between either maintaining the prewar status quo or promoting a more inclusive approach that sought for all members the right to participate in the internal affairs of unions, access to skilled and high-paying positions within the occupational hierarchy, and protection against management's arbitrary authority in the workplace. While union representatives often voiced this inclusive ideal, in practice unions far more often favored entrenched interests. The accelerating development of the civil rights movement following the Second World War exacerbated the unions' dilemma, forcing trade unionists to confront contradictions in their own practices.

  Question #11. 094-01 (21726-!-item-!-188;#058&000094-01)

  The "unions' dilemma" mentioned in the highlighted text can best be described as the question of whether or not to

  (A) pressure management to create more skilled and high-paying positions

  (B) fight for greater union participation in management decisions

  (C) include minority workers in their membership

  (D) extend full rights and benefits to all their members

  (E) emphasize the recruitment of new members over serving the needs of current members

  Question #12. 094-02 (21772-!-item-!-188;#058&000094-02)

  According to the passage, the historians mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and the scholars mentioned in the second highlighted portion disagree about the

  (A) contribution made by organized labor to the war effort during the Second World War

  (B) issues that union members considered most important during the Second World War

  (C) relationship between unions and African Americans during the Second World War

  (D) effect of the Second World War on the influence of unions in the workplace

  (E) extent to which African Americans benefited from social and political changes following the Second World War

  Question #13. 094-06 (21818-!-item-!-188;#058&000094-06)

  The passage is primarily concerned with

  (A) providing a context within which to evaluate opposing viewpoints about a historical phenomenon

  (B) identifying a flawed assumption underlying one interpretation of a historical phenomenon

  (C) assessing the merits and weaknesses of a controversial theory about a historical phenomenon

  (D) discussing the historical importance of the development of a wartime alliance

  (E) evaluating evidence used to support a particular interpretation of a historical phenomenon


  11 问那个两难的境地是什么!刚才我们扫文章的时候已经知道这个两难的境地是要么维持战前水平要么为所有工人谋求权利。我们带着这个信息来看看选项!

  A 给管理层施压提供更多高薪职位,没说过,杀。

  B 加入管理层,没提过,杀

  C 把一少部分人变成会员,没提,杀

  D 把权利和好处延伸到所有成员,和文章有点关系,先留着

  E 招募新的成员,没提,杀

  12 问两个不同的地方人观点的差异是什么,差异通过什么地方体现出来?显然是后面那个人的,我们关注however后面所说的就可以了(当然你把两个人的都读了找出差异也可以,只不过我考场没那么多时间,你呢?)我们来看看however后面这句话 Other scholars, however, have portrayed organized labor as defending all along the relatively privileged position of White workers relative to African American workers. 大概说的是白种工人相对于非洲来的美国工人有特权。我们来看看选项

  A 劳动力对于二战所做的贡献,没提,杀。

  B 一些union member认为是最重要的话题,没提,杀

  C union和非洲来的美国工人之间的关系,主体还有点关系,而且说的有点像佛,先留着


  E 非洲来的美国工人从社会和政治的变革中受益,没提,杀。

  13 问主旨,我们直接来看选项

  A 两个家伙对于一个现象相反的观点,和文章第一段有点关系,留着

  B 一个错误的假设,文章没谈谁对谁错,就是对比了两个人的态度,主观答案,去掉

  C 一个矛盾理论的优缺点。文章就没谈过一个矛盾的理论,更不要说它的优缺点了

  D 战争同盟的重要性,文章确实谈过,但只是个背景,不能回答问题,干掉

  E 一个东西来支持对一个历史现象的解读,文章都出现however了,肯定不是支持,杀


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