1. Because incumbent members of Congress are given a great deal of attention by the news media and because they enjoy such perquisites as free mail privileges and generous travel allowances, incumbents enjoy an overwhelming advantage over their challengers in elections for the United States Congress.
Which of the following, if true, best supports the claim above?
(A) In the last congressional elections, incumbents met with a larger number of lobbyists than did challengers.
(B) In the last congressional elections, 98 percent of the incumbents in the House of Representatives who were seeking reelection won.
(C) Incumbent members of Congress are frequently critical of the amount of attention given to them by the news media.
(D) The support that political station action committees provide to challengers for congressional seats often compensates for the perquisites enjoyed by incumbent members of Congress.
(E) Of all incumbent senators surveyed before the last congressional elections, 78 percent said that their challengers did not pose a serious threat to their chances for reelection.
2. A cost-effective solution to the problem of airport congestion is to provide high-speed ground transportation between major cities lying 200 to 500 miles apart. The successful implementation of this plan would cost far less than expanding existing airports and would also reduce the number of airplanes clogging both airports and airways.
Which of the following, if true, could be proponents of the plan above most appropriately cite as a piece of evidence for the soundness of their plan?
A. An effective high-speed ground-transportation system would require major repairs to many highways and mass-transit improvements.
B. One-half of all departing flights in the nation’s busiest airport head for a destination in a major city 225 miles away.
C. The majority of travelers departing from rural airports are flying to destinations in cities over 600 miles away.
D. Many new airports are being built in areas that are presently served by high-speed ground-transportation systems.
E. A large proportion of air travelers are vacationers who are taking long-distance flights.
3. Recent surveys show that many people who seek media help are under a great deal of stress. Medical research also shows that stress can adversely affect an individual’s immune system, which is responsible for combating many infections. Thus when a person is under stress, he or she is more likely to become ill.
Which of the following, if true, would most strength the conclusion above?
(A) Many businesses that provide health insurance for their employees also provide seminars on stress management.
(B) Many businesses report a significant decrease in absenteeism during periods when employees feel pressured by management.
(C) There is a marked decrease in the number of complaints presented at college infirmaries during vacation time.
(D) There is a marked increase in the number of illness treated at college infirmaries around the time of examinations.
(E) Most people report that being in a hospital or an infirmary is a stressful situation.
4. If the airspace around centrally located airports were restricted to commercial airliners and only those private planes equipped with radar, most of the private-plane traffic would be forced to sue outlying airfields. Such a reduction in the amount of private-plane traffic would reduce the risk of midair collision around the centrally located airports.
Which of the following, if true, would most strengthen the conclusion drawn in the second sentence?
A. Commercial airliners are already required by law to be equipped with extremely sophisticated radar systems.
B. Centrally located airports are experiencing overcrowded airspace primarily because f sharp increases in commercial-airline traffic.
C. Many pilots of private planes would rather buy radar equipment than be excluded from centrally located airports.
D. The number of midair collisions that occur near centrally located airports has decreased in recent years.
E. Private planes not equipped with radar systems cause a disproportionately large number of midair collisions around centrally located airports.
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