9.(Z)It is true of both men and women that those who marry as young adults live longer than those who never marry. This does not show that marriage causes people to live longer, since, as compared with other people of the same age, young adults who are about to get married have fewer of the unhealthy habits that can cause a person to have a shorter life, most notably smoking and immoderate drinking of alcohol.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument above?
A. Marriage tends to cause people to engage less regularly in sports that involve risk of bodily harm.
B. A married person who has an unhealthy habit is more likely to give up that habit than a person with the same habit who is unmarried.
C. A person who smokes is much more likely than a nonsmoker to marry a person who smokes at the time of marriage, and the same is true for people who drink alcohol immoderately.
D. Among people who marry as young adults, most of those who give up an unhealthy habit after marriage do not resume the habit later in life.
E.Among people who as young adults neither drink alcohol immoderately nor smoke, those who never marry live as long as those who marry.
10. The population of peregrine falcons declined rapidly during the 1950’s and 1960’s and reached an all-time low in the early 1970’s. The decline was attributed by scientists to the widespread use of the pesticide DDT in rural areas.
Which of the following, if true, gives the strongest support to the scientists claim?
(A) DDT was not generally in use in areas devoted to heavy industry.
(B) In the time since the use of DDT was banned in 1972, the population of peregrine falcons has been steadily increasing.
(C) Peregrine falcons, like other birds of prey, abandon eggs that fallen out of the nest, even if the eggs remain intact.
(D) Starling, house sparrows, and blue jays-birds the peregrine falcon prey on—were not adversely affected by DDT in their habitats.
(E) Other birds of prey, such as the osprey, the bald cage, and the brown pclican, are found in the same area as is the peregrine falcon.
11.(Z)Healthy lungs produce a natural antibiotic that protects them from infection by routinely killing harmful bacteria on airway surfaces. People with cystic fibrosis, however, are unable to fight off such bacteria, even though their lungs produce normal amounts of the antibiotic. The fluid on airway surfaces in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis has an abnormally high salt concentration; accordingly, scientists hypothesize that the high salt concentration is what makes the antibiotic ineffective.
Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the scientists’ hypothesis?
A. When the salt concentration of the fluid on the airway surfaces of healthy people is raised artificially, the salt concentration soon returns to normal.
B. A sample of the antibiotic was capable of killing bacteria in an environment with an unusually low concentration of salt.
C. When lung tissue from people with cystic fibrosis is maintained in a solution with a normal salt concentration, the tissue can resist bacteria.
D. Many lung infections can be treated by applying synthetic antibiotics to the airway surfaces.
E. High salt concentrations have an antibiotic effect in many circumstances.
Mayor Delmont’s critics complain about the jobs that were lost in the city under Delmont’s leadership. Yet the fact is that not only were more jobs created than were eliminated, but the average pay for these new jobs has been higher than the average pay for jobs citywide every year since Delmont took office. So there can be no question that throughout Delmont’s tenure the average paycheck in this city has been getting steadily bigger.
Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument in the advertisement?
A. The average pay for jobs created in the city during the past three years was higher than the average pay for jobs created in the city earlier in Mayor Delmont’s tenure.
B. Average pay in the city was at a ten-year low when Mayor Delmont took office.
C. Some of the jobs created in the city during Mayor Delmont’s tenure have in the meantime been eliminated again.
D. The average pay for jobs eliminated in the city during Mayor Delmont’s tenure has been roughly equal every year to the average pay for jobs citywide.
E. The average pay for jobs in the city is currently higher than it is for jobs in the suburbs surrounding the city.
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