13.(Z)In 1992 outlaw fishing boats began illegally harvesting lobsters from the territorial waters of the country of Belukia. Soon after, the annual tonnage of lobster legally harvested in Belukian waters began declining; in 1996, despite there being no reduction in the level of legal lobster fishing activity, the local catch was 9,000 tons below pre-1992 levels. It is therefore highly likely that the outlaw fishing boats harvested about 9,000 tons of lobster illegally that year.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The illegal lobster harvesting was not so extensive that the population of catchable lobsters in Belukia’s territorial waters had sharply declined by 1996
B. The average annual lobster catch, in tons, of an outlaw fishing boat is has increased steadily since 1992.
C. Outlaw fishing boats do not , as a group, harvest more lobsters than do licensed lobster-fishing boats.
D. The annual legal lobster harvest in Belukia in 1996 was not significantly less than 9,000 tons.
E. A significant proportion of Belukia’s operators of licensed lobster-fishing boats were out of business between 1992 and 1996
14.(Z)For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brains is damaged, for example, by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?
A. No part of a person’s brain that is damaged by a stroke never recovers
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a person’s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.
15.(Z)Press Secretary: Our critics claim that the President’s recent highway project cancellations demonstrate a vindictive desire to punish legislative districts controlled by opposition parties. They offer as evidence the fact that 90 percent of the projects canceled were in such districts. But all of the canceled projects had been identified as wasteful in a report written by respected nonpartisan auditors. So the President’s choice was clearly motivated by sound budgetary policy, not partisan politics.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the press secretary’s argument depends?
A. Canceling highway projects was not the only way for the President to punish legislative districts controlled by opposition parties.
B. The scheduled highway projects identified as wasteful in the report were not mostly projects in districts controlled by the President’s party.
C. The number of projects canceled was a significant proportion of all the highway projects that were to be undertaken by the government in the near future.
D. The highway projects canceled in districts controlled by the President’s party were not generally more expensive than the projects canceled in districts controlled by opposition parties.
E. Reports by nonpartisan auditors are not generally regarded by the opposition parties as a source of objective assessments of government projects.
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