2019-08-21 16:34:00来源:网络


  Critical Reasoning

  Critical reasoning questions appear in the Verbal section of the GMAT-exam.The Verbal section uses multiple—choice questions to measure your ability to read and comprehend written material,to reason and evaluate arguments,and to correct written material to conform to standard written English.Because the Verbal section includes content from a variety of may be generally familiar with some of the material;however, neither the passages nor the questions assume knowledge of the topics discussed.Critical reasoning questions are intermingled with reading comprehension and sentence correction questions throughout the Verbal section of the exam.

  You will have 75 minutes to complete the Verbal section.or about 1 minutes to answer each question.Although critical reasoning questions are based on written passages,these passages are shorter than reading—comprehension passages.They tend to be 1ess than 100 words in 1en~th and generally are followed by one or two questions.For these questions,you will see a split computer screen.The written passage will remain visible as each question associated with that passage appears in turn on the screen.You will see only one question at a time.

  Critical reasoning questions are designed to test the reasoning skills involved in(1)making arguments,(2)evaluating arguments,and(3)formulating or evaluating a plan of action.The materials on which questions are based are drawn from a variety of sources.The GMAT-test does not suppose any familiarity with the subject matter of those materials.

  In these questions,you are to analyze the situation on which each question is based,and then select the answer choice that most appropriately answers the question.Begin by reading the passages carefully, then read the five answer choices.If the correct answer is not immediately obvious to you,see whether you can eliminate some of the wrong answers.Reading the passage a second time may be helpful in illuminating subtleties that were not immediately evident.

  Answering critical reasoning questions requires no specialized knowledge of any particular field;you don’t have to have knowledge of the terminology and conventions of formal logic.The sample critical reasoning questions in this chapter illustrate the variety of topics the exam may cove, the kinds of questions it may ask, and the level of analysis it requires.

  The following pages describe what critical reasoning questions are designed to measure and present the directions that will precede questions of this type.Sample questions and explanations of the correct answers follow.

  4.1 What is Measured

  Critical reasoning questions are designed to provide one measure of your ability to reason effectively in the following areas:

  Argument Construction

  Questions in this category may ask you to recognize such things as the basic structure of an argument,properly drawn conclusions,underlying assumptions,well-supported explanatory hypotheses,or parallels between structurally similar arguments.

  Argument Evaluation

  These questions may ask you to analyze a given argument and to recognize such things as factors that would strengthen or weaken the given argument;reasoning errors committed in making that argument;or aspects of the method by which the argument proceeds.

  Formulating and evaluating a plan of action

  This type of question may ask you to recognize such things as the relative appropriateness,effectiveness,or efficiency of different plans of action;factors that would strengthen or weaken the prospects of success for a proposed plan of action;or assumptions underlying a proposed plan of action.

  4.2 Test-Taking Strategies for Critical Reasoning Questions

  1. Read very carefully the set of statements on which a question is based.

  Pay close attention to一

  what is put forward as factual information;

  what is not said but necessarily follows from what is said;

  what is claimed to follow from facts that have been put forward;and

  how well substantiated are any claims that a particular conclusion follows from the facts that have been put forward.

  In reading the arguments,it is important to pay attention to the logical reasoning used;

  the actual truth of statements portrayed as fact is not important.

  2.Identify the conclusion.

  The conclusion does not necessarily come at the end of the text;it may come somewhere in

  the middle,or even at the beginning. Be alert to dues in the text that an argument follows logically from another statement or statements in the text.

  3.Determine exactly what each question asks.

  You might find it helpful to read the question first,before reading the material on which it is based;don’t assume that you know what you will be asked about an argument.An argument may have obvious flaws,and one question may ask you to detect them.But another question may direct you to select t11e one answer choice that does NOT describe a flaw in the argument.

  4.Read all the answer choices carefully.

  Do not assume that a given answer is the best without first reading all the choices.

  4.3 The Directions

  These are the directions you will see for critical reasoning questions when you take the GMAT-test. If you read them carefully and understand them dearly before going to sit for the exam,you will not need to spend too much time reviewing them when you are at the test center and the exam is under way.

  For this question,select the best of the answer choices given.

  4.4 Critical Reasoning Sample Questions

  For these questions, select the best of the answer choices given

  1. Which of the following best completes the passage below?

  In a survey of job applicants,two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest.However, the survey may underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest,because .

  (A) some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest

  (B) some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest

  (C) some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest

  (D) some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly

  (E) some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a l吐le dishonest



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